Your 4-year-old is at an important learning stage. Let him set his own pace as you provide opportunities to encourage his enthusiasm and creativity.
Take him to the zoo, museums, and don’t forget the art gallery. There are many good books which illustrate the spatial concepts he needs to learn like over and under, and opposites like big and small. You can reinforce these concepts with everyday objects, like balls and cups.
“Encourage your child’s relationships with his friends.”
Encourage your child’s relationships with his friends. However, you will find that with this exposure, he will realize there are other values and opinions besides yours.
Physical safety is still a big issue as motor skills have increased substantially but judgment is lacking. He will need to be reminded to wait and hold hands before crossing the street and although he probably loves water and wants to swim, never leave him unattended.
As he expresses his normal curiosity about sexuality, don’t scold or punish. Answer his questions with short age-appropriate answers.
Don’t overreact to unpleasant behaviors. ‘Time outs’ are an effective form of punishment for this age. Usually it’s recommended one minute per year, so try a four-minute time out.